With the 1900s bringing two devastating world wars, many countries set wartime regulations for rationing almost all aspects of life. This included materials previously used for making heels, such as silk, rubber, or leather; these began to be replaced with cork and wooden soles. Another one of the numerous outcomes of these wars was an increase in international relations, and a more proliferate sharing of fashion through photography and films, which helped spread high heel fashion as well. Examples of this were the brown and white pumps with cutouts or ankle straps combined with an open toe. Their practicality yet professional look appealed to the new, fast-paced lifestyle of many women.
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High heels are marketed to children, and some schools encourage children to wear them. 18% of injuries from wearing high heels were in children, and 4% in under-tens, in a 2002-2012 US survey. Concern was expressed about children's use of high heels in a 2016 medical review on high-heeled shoes. A nine-year old is about half an adult's height, and a toddler about a quarter; so, relative to body height, a 2-inch (5 cm) heel on an adult would be a one-inch heel on the nine-year-old, and a half-inch heel on the toddler, though whether this translates to comparable health harms is not known.
High heels have been made from all kinds of materials throughout history. In the early years, leather and cowhide was preferred. As civilizations progressed, silk and patent leather were introduced, while cork and wood were utilized as cheap resources in times of war. After the World Wars and the increase in production of steel, the actual heel was a piece of steel wrapped in some kind of material. This has enabled designers to make heels taller and skinnier without them snapping. The soles below the ball of the foot of Ballroom shoes can also be made of materials like smooth leather, suede, or plastic. 
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