With the 1900s bringing two devastating world wars, many countries set wartime regulations for rationing almost all aspects of life. This included materials previously used for making heels, such as silk, rubber, or leather; these began to be replaced with cork and wooden soles.[13] Another one of the numerous outcomes of these wars was an increase in international relations, and a more proliferate sharing of fashion through photography and films, which helped spread high heel fashion as well.[9] Examples of this were the brown and white pumps with cutouts or ankle straps combined with an open toe.[13] Their practicality yet professional look appealed to the new, fast-paced lifestyle of many women.
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Wearing high-heeled shoes is strongly associated with injury, including injury requiring hospital care. There is evidence that high-heel-wearers fall more often, especially with heels >2.5cm high,[21] even if they were not wearing high heels at the time of the fall.[22] Wearing high heels is also associated with musculoskeletal pain,[22] specifically pain in the paraspinal muscles (muscles running up the back along the spine)[citation needed] and specifically with heel pain and plantar calluses (only women tested).[21]
In a 1992 study, researchers from the University of California, Davis and Thomas Jefferson University wanted to investigate the effects of increased heel height on foot pressure using forty-five female participants walking across a pressure plate in various heel heights.[24] A Biokinetics software was used to analyze the exact pressure locations on and along each participants' foot. The researchers were able to conclude that an increase in heel height lead to an increase in pressure beneath each of the Metatarsal bones of the foot. Additionally, they found that the highest heel heights caused constant pressure that could not be evenly dispersed across the foot.
Alternatively, World War II led to the popularization of pin-up girl posters, which men would often hang in their bunks while at war. Almost all of these girls were pictured wearing high heels, leading to an increase in the relationship between high heels and female sexuality.[3] The tall, skinny stiletto heel was invented in 1950, strengthening the relationship between women, sexuality, and appearance.[10] There was a weakening of the stiletto style during both the late 1960s / early 1970s and also 1990s when block heels were more prominent, followed by a revival in the 2000s.

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In 2016, scientists from the Department of Physical Therapy in the Sahmyook University in Korea conducted a study to examine the effects of increased heel height and gait velocity on balance control.[28] Balance control refers to the ability of the body to maintain itself along the line of the center of gravity within a base of support. This must be achieved with minimal postural sway velocity which is the horizontal movement of a body trying to maintain balance when standing still. Wearing high heels narrows the base of support that the body has in order to avoid falling and also restricts the area within which the body must sway. In this study, the participants were told to wear either a low or high heel and walk at a low and high speed on a treadmill. As a result of this experiment, the researchers were able to conclude that as heel height increased, the sway velocity of the bodies increased which also modified the position of the knee joint. Muscles have to realign the entire body especially the hips along the line of gravity. As the weight of the body shifted forward, the hips were taken out of alignment and the knee joints experienced stress in order to adjust to the shift.
High heels can instantly dress up a once casual outfit. Go from wearing a t-shirt and jeans during the day to slipping on black high heels and a leather jacket to transform your outfit into a fierce and edgy night look. As far as a specific style suggestion, block heels are a great choice for everyday wear. Grab a pair in brown, nude, or black to match with almost any outfit. These stylish heels are always flattering and look adorable with skirts, dresses, or jeans. Spice things up with a pattern and grab a pair in cheetah print, because who doesn’t love to get a little wild?
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High heels have been made from all kinds of materials throughout history. In the early years, leather and cowhide was preferred. As civilizations progressed, silk and patent leather were introduced, while cork and wood were utilized as cheap resources in times of war.[13] After the World Wars and the increase in production of steel, the actual heel was a piece of steel wrapped in some kind of material. This has enabled designers to make heels taller and skinnier without them snapping.[19] The soles below the ball of the foot of Ballroom shoes can also be made of materials like smooth leather, suede, or plastic. [20]
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